#To See The Beauty Of Life
Our future operating results and financial condition may be affected by various factors, including those set forthbelow.
RISKS RELATING TO OUR INDUSTRY AND GENERAL ECONOMIC CONDITIONS
a. If current economic conditions deteriorate, demand for our products will be adversely impacted, access to credit will be reduced and our customers and others with which we do business will suffer financial hardship. All of these factors could reduce sales and in turn adversely impact our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows
Our operations and performance depend significantly on worldwide economic conditions. Uncertainty about global economic conditions poses a risk to our business because consumers and businesses may postpone spending in response to tighter credit markets, unemployment, negative financial news and/or declines in income or asset values, which could have a material adverse effect on demand for our products and services. Discretionary spending is affected by many factors, including general business conditions, inflation, interest rates, consumer debt levels, unemployment rates, availability of consumer credit, conditions in the real estate and mortgage markets, currency exchange rates and other matters that influence consumer confidence. Many of these factors are outside our control.
Purchases of discretionary items could decline during periods in which disposable income is lower or prices have increased in response to rising costs or in periods of actual or perceived unfavorable economic conditions. If this occurs or if unfavorable economic conditions continue to challenge the consumer environment, our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows could be materially adversely affected.
In the event of financial turmoil affecting the banking system and financial markets, additional consolidation of the financial services industry or significant failure of financial services institutions, there could be a tightening of the credit markets, decreased liquidity and extreme volatility in fixed income, credit, currency and equity markets. In addition, the credit crisis could continue to have material adverse effects on our business, including the inability of customers of our wholesale distribution business to obtain credit to finance purchases of our products, restructurings, bankruptcies, liquidations and other unfavorable events for our consumers, customers, vendors, suppliers, logistics providers, other service providers and the financial institutions that are counterparties to our credit facilities and other derivative transactions.
The likelihood that such third parties will be unable to overcome such unfavorable financial difficulties may increase. If the third parties on which we rely for goods and services or our wholesale customers are unable to overcome financial difficulties resulting from the deterioration of worldwide economic conditions or if the counterparties to our credit facilities or our derivative transactions do not perform their obligations as intended, our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows could be materially adversely affected.
b. If our business suffers due to changing local conditions, our profitability and future growth may be affected
We currently operate worldwide and have our operations in many countries, including certain developing countries in Asia, South America and Africa. Therefore, we are subject to various risks inherent in conducting business internationally, including the following:
- Exposure to local economic and political conditions
- Export and import restrictions
- Currency exchange rate fluctuations and currency controls
- Cash repatriation restrictions
- Application of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and similar laws
- Difficulty in enforcing intellectual property and contract rights
- Disruptions of capital and trading markets • Accounts receivable collection and longer payment cycles
- Potential hostilities and changes in diplomatic and trade relationships
- Legal or regulatory requirements
- Withholding and other taxes on remittances and other payments by subsidiaries
- Local antitrust and other market abuse provisions
- Investment restrictions or requirements
- Local content laws requiring that certain products contain a specified minimum percentage of domestically produced components.
The likelihood of such occurrences and their potential effect on us vary from country to country and are unpredictable, but any such occurrence may result in the loss of sales or increased costs of doing business and may have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects.
c. Recent political changes in certain countries in which we do significant business have resulted in global regulatory uncertainty with respect to international trade may and could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations by increasing costs and slowing distribution processes.
On June 23, 2016, the United Kingdom held a referendum in which voters approved an exit from the European Union, commonly referred to as “Brexit.” As a result of the referendum, the British government has indicated that it will formally notify the European Union of the United Kingdom’s intent to withdraw on March 29th, 2017 in order to begin negotiating the terms of the United Kingdom’s future relationship with the European Union. Although it is unknown what those terms will be, it is possible that there will be greater restrictions on imports and exports between the United Kingdom and European Union countries and increased regulatory complexities. These changes may adversely affect our operations and financial results.
In addition, in the United States, the new leadership has expressed a desire to reevaluate and potentially modify existing trade agreements, such as the North America Free Trade Agreement, to restrict free trade, including significant increases in tariffs on goods imported into the United States. Any future changes in U.S. political, regulatory or economic conditions or in laws or policies governing foreign trade, manufacturing, development and investment in the territories and countries where we currently develop and sell products could adversely affect our business.
d. If vision correction alternatives to prescription eyeglasses become more widely available, or consumer preferences for such alternatives increase, our profitability could suffer through a reduction of sales of our prescription eyewear products, including lenses and accessories
Our business could be negatively impacted by the availability and acceptance of vision correction alternatives to prescription eyeglasses, such as contact lenses and refractive optical surgery. Increased use of vision correction alternatives could result in decreased use of our prescription eyewear products, including a reduction of sales of lenses and accessories sold in our retail outlets, which could have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects.
e. Unforeseen or catastrophic losses not covered by insurance could materially adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition
For certain risks, we do not maintain insurance coverage because of cost and/or availability. Because we retain some portion of our insurable risks, and in some cases self insure completely, unforeseen or catastrophic losses in excess of insured limits could materially adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
RISKS RELATING TO THE COMBINATION WITH THE ESSILOR
f. The completion of the Combination is subject to a number of conditions precedent, any of which may prevent or delay the Combination if it is not satisfied or waived
The Contribution to Essilor of the Luxottica shares held by Delfin, and by extension the Combination, is subject to a number of conditions precedent, including approval by the shareholders of Essilor and clearance from the relevant anti-trust authorities. There can be no guarantee that these conditions will be satisfied or waived in a timely fashion or at all. Any failure or delay in respect thereof could prevent the completion of the Contribution or delay the completion of the Combination, which could reduce the synergies and benefits that are expected as a result of the Combination.
g. The integration of the operations of Luxottica and Essilor may not be successful and may disrupt operations or generate unanticipated expenses
The anticipated benefits of the contemplated Combination will depend in part on the successful integration of the activities of Luxottica and Essilor, which are two complex groups of considerable size that currently operate independently. The companies could encounter significant difficulties in implementing an integration plan, some of which may be unforeseen or beyond the control of Luxottica and Essilor.
There is no certainty that all anticipated synergies and benefits will be realized as envisaged. In addition, the process of integration will be complex and time-consuming, and management will have to devote significant time and resources to the effort. These efforts could divert management’s focus and resources from other strategic opportunities and from day-to-day operational matters during the integration process.
Integration efforts also may generate significant unanticipated costs, which could adversely affect the Company’s or the combined company’s financial condition and results of operations.
h. The Combination may trigger change of control provisions in certain of Luxottica’s financing and operating agreements
The Combination could potentially trigger certain change of control provisions (including requirements to obtain approval from a counterparty or, in the case of certain financing documents, that Luxottica redeem securities from investors), which could result in a range of adverse consequences, including termination of the contracts, rendering amounts owed by Luxottica immediately payable or requiring amendments to the contracts. Luxottica may be unable to obtain the required consent of a counterparty or may be required to renegotiate contracts on terms that are less favorable to Luxottica in connection with obtaining such consent.
i. The Combination contemplates a mandatory tender offer for all of the shares of Luxottica that are outstanding subsequent to the Contribution, which could diminish the liquidity of the Luxottica shares that are held by shareholders that do not tender their shares
The Combination contemplates that, after the Contribution, Essilor will launch a mandatory exchange tender offer for all outstanding shares of Luxottica, pursuant to articles 102 and 106 of the Italian Financial Act, at the same exchange ratio that is applicable to the Contribution. The tender offer would be conducted with a view toward the delisting of the Luxottica shares from the Borsa Italiana [and its ADRs from the New York Stock Exchange]. Nevertheless, Luxottica’s ability to delist will depend on the acceptance level of Luxottica shareholders in the tender offer. If, following the tender offer, Essilor’s squeeze out right under article 111 of the Italian Financial Act is not triggered but the Luxottica shares are delisted for lack of sufficient free float, or the free float is significantly reduced, Luxottica shareholders who did not tender their shares will hold shares that are less liquid and, consequently, could encounter difficulties in disposing of them.
The industry is also subject to rapidly changing consumer preferences and future sales may suffer if the fashion and consumer products industries do not continue to grow or if consumer preferences shift away from our products. Changes in fashion could also affect the popularity and, therefore, the value of the fashion licenses granted to us by designers. Any event or circumstance resulting in reduced market acceptance of one or more of these designers could reduce our sales and the value of our models from that designer. Unanticipated shifts in consumer preferences may also result in excess inventory and underutilized manufacturing capacity. In addition, our success depends, in large part, on our ability to anticipate and react to changing fashion trends in a timely manner.
Any sustained failure to identify and respond to such trends could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition and may result in the write down of excess inventory and idle manufacturing facilities.
RISKS RELATING TO OUR BUSINESS AND OPERATIONS
j. If we are unable to successfully introduce new products and develop and defend our brands, our future sales and operating performance may suffer.
The mid and premium price categories of the prescription frame and sunglasses markets in which we compete are particularly vulnerable to changes in fashion trends and consumer preferences. Our historical success is attributable, in part, to our introduction of innovative products which are perceived to represent an improvement over products otherwise available in the market and our ability to develop and defend our brands, especially our Ray Ban and Oakley proprietary brands. Our future success will depend on our continued ability to develop and introduce such innovative products and continued success in building our brands. If we are unable to continue to do so, our future sales could decline, inventory levels could rise, leading to additional costs for storage and potential write downs relating to the value of excess inventory, and there could be a negative impact on production costs since fixed costs would represent a larger portion of total production costs due to the decline in quantities produced, which could materially adversely affect our results of operations.
k. If we are not successful in completing and integrating strategic acquisitions to expand or complement our business, our future profitability and growth could be at risk.
As part of our growth strategy, we have made, and may continue to make, strategic business acquisitions to expand or complement our business. Our acquisition activities, however, can be disrupted by overtures from competitors for the targeted candidates, governmental regulation and rapid developments in our industry. We may face additional risks and uncertainties following an acquisition, including (i) difficulty in integrating the newly acquired business and operations in an efficient and effective manner, (ii) inability to achieve strategic objectives, cost savings and other benefits from the acquisition, (iii) the lack of success by the acquired business in its markets, (iv) the loss of key employees of the acquired business, (v) a decrease in the focus of senior management on our operations, (vi) difficulty integrating human resources systems, operating systems, inventory management systems and assortment planning systems of the acquired business with our systems, (vii) the cultural differences between our organization and that of the acquired business and (viii) liabilities that were not known at the time of acquisition or the need to address tax or accounting issues. If we fail to timely recognize or address these matters or to devote adequate resources to them, we may fail to achieve our growth strategy or otherwise realize the intended benefits of any acquisition. Even if we are able to integrate our business operations successfully, the integration may not result in the realization of the full benefits of synergies, cost savings, innovation and operational efficiencies that may be possible from the integration or in the achievement of such benefits within the forecasted period of time.
l. If we are unable to achieve our business objectives and manage growth, operating margins may be reduced as a result of decreased efficiency of distribution.
In order to achieve our business objectives and manage our growth effectively, we are required to increase and streamline production and implement manufacturing efficiencies where possible, while maintaining strict quality control and the ability to deliver products to our customers in a timely and efficient manner. We must also continuously develop new product designs and features, expand our information systems and operations, and train and manage an increasing number of management level and other employees. If we are unable to manage these matters effectively, our distribution process could be adversely affected and we could lose market share in affected regions, which could materially adversely affect our business prospects.
m. If we do not correctly predict future economic conditions and changes in consumer preferences, our sales of premium products and profitability could suffer.
The fashion and consumer products industries in which we operate are cyclical. Downturns in general economic conditions or uncertainties regarding future economic prospects, which affect consumer disposable income, have historically adversely affected consumer spending habits in our principal markets and thus made the growth in sales and profitability of premium priced product categories difficult during such downturns. Therefore, future economic downturns or uncertainties could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition, including sales of our designer and other premium brands. The industry is also subject to rapidly changing consumer preferences and future sales may suffer if the fashion and consumer products industries do not continue to grow or if consumer preferences shift away from our products. Changes in fashion could also affect the popularity and, therefore, the value of the fashion licenses granted to us by designers.
Any event or circumstance resulting in reduced market acceptance of one or more of these designers could reduce our sales and the value of our models from that designer. Unanticipated shifts in consumer preferences may also result in excess inventory and underutilized manufacturing capacity. In addition, our success depends, in large part, on our ability to anticipate and react to changing fashion trends in a timely manner. Any sustained failure to identify and respond to such trends could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition and may result in the write down of excess inventory and idle manufacturing facilities.
n. If we do not continue to negotiate and maintain favorable license arrangements, our sales or cost of sales could suffer.
We have entered into license agreements that enable us to manufacture and distribute prescription frames and sunglasses under certain designer names, including Chanel, Prada, Miu Miu, Dolce & Gabbana, Bvlgari, Tiffany & Co., Versace, Burberry, Ralph Lauren, DKNY, Paul Smith, Brooks Brothers, Stella McCartney, Tory Burch, Coach, Armani, Michael Kors and Starck Eyes. These license agreements typically have terms of between three and ten years and may contain options for renewal for additional periods and require us to make guaranteed and contingent royalty payments to the licensor. We believe that our ability to maintain and negotiate favorable license agreements with leading designers in the fashion and luxury goods industries is essential to the branding of our products and, therefore, material to the success of our business. Accordingly, if we are unable to negotiate and maintain satisfactory license arrangements with leading designers, our growth prospects and financial results could materially suffer from a reduction in sales or an increase in advertising costs and royalty payments to designers. For the years ended December 31, 2016 and 2015, no single license agreement represented greater than 5.0% of total sales.
o. As we operate in a complex international environment, if new laws, regulations or policies of governmental organizations, or changes to existing ones, occur and cannot be managed efficiently, the results could have a negative impact on our operations, our ability to compete or our future financial results.
Compliance with international laws and regulations that apply to our international operations increases our costs of doing business, including cost of compliance, in certain jurisdictions, and such costs may rise in the future as a result of changes in these laws and regulations or in their interpretation or enforcement. This includes, in particular, our manufacturing activities and services provided to us by third parties within our supply chain, which are subject to numerous workplace health and safety laws, environmental laws, labor laws and other similar regulations and restrictions on the sourcing of materials (including with respect to “conflict mineral” zones) that may vary from country to country and are continuously evolving. In certain countries, failure to comply with applicable laws and regulations relating to workplace health and safety protection and environmental matters could result in criminal and/or civil penalties being imposed on responsible individuals and, in certain cases, the Company. In addition, effective in 2016, the European Union has put in place new rules and regulations regarding privacy concerns, which impose fines and penalties for non-compliance that are calculated as a percentage of net sales. In certain circumstances, even if no fine or penalty is imposed for our failure to comply with an applicable law or regulation, we may suffer reputational harm if we fail to comply with applicable laws and regulations. We have implemented policies and procedures designed to facilitate our compliance with these laws and regulations, but there can be no assurance that our employees, contractors or agents will not violate such laws and regulations or our policies. Any such violations could individually, or in the aggregate, materially adversely affect our financial condition or operating results.
Additionally, our Oakley, Eye Safety Systems and EyeMed subsidiaries are U.S. government contractors or subcontractors and, as a result, we must comply with, and are affected by, U.S. laws and regulations related to conducting business with the U.S. government. These laws and regulations may impose various additional costs and risks on our business. For example, Oakley and Eye Safety Systems are required to obtain applicable governmental approvals, clearances and certain export licenses. We also may become subject to audits, reviews and investigations of our compliance with these laws and regulations.
p. If we are unable to protect our proprietary rights, our sales might suffer, and we may incur significant additional costs to defend such rights.
We rely on trade secret, fair competition, trade dress, trademark, patent and copyright laws to protect our rights to certain aspects of our products and services, including product designs, brand names, proprietary manufacturing processes and technologies, product research and concepts and goodwill, all of which we believe are important to the success of our products and services and our competitive position. However, pending trademark or patent applications may not in all instances result in the issuance of a registered trademark or patent, and trademarks or patents granted may not be effective in thwarting competition or be held valid if subsequently challenged. In addition, the actions we take to protect our proprietary rights may be inadequate to prevent imitation of our products and services. Our proprietary information could become known to competitors, and we may not be able to meaningfully protect our rights to proprietary information. Furthermore, other companies may independently develop substantially equivalent or better products or services that do not infringe on our intellectual property rights or could assert rights in, and ownership of, our proprietary rights. Moreover, the laws of certain countries do not protect proprietary rights to the same extent as the laws of the United States or of the member states of the European Union.
Consistent with our strategy of vigorously defending our intellectual property rights, we devote substantial resources to the enforcement of patents issued and trademarks granted to us, to the protection of our trade secrets or other intellectual property rights and to the determination of the scope or validity of the proprietary rights of others that might be asserted against us. However, if the level of potentially infringing activities by others were to increase substantially, we might have to significantly increase the resources we devote to protecting our rights. From time to time, third parties may assert patent, copyright, trademark or similar rights against intellectual property that is important to our business. The resolution or compromise of any litigation or other legal process to enforce such alleged third party rights, regardless of its merit or resolution, could be costly and divert the efforts and attention of our management. We may not prevail in any such litigation or other legal process or we may compromise or settle such claims because of the complex technical issues and inherent uncertainties in intellectual property disputes and the significant expense in defending such claims. An adverse determination in any dispute involving our proprietary rights could, among other things, (i) require us to coexist in the market with competitors utilizing the same or similar intellectual property, (ii) require us to grant licenses to, or obtain licenses from, third parties, (iii) prevent us from manufacturing or selling our products, (iv) require us to discontinue the use of a particular patent, trademark, copyright or trade secret or (v) subject us to substantial liability. Any of these possibilities could have a material adverse effect on our business by reducing our future sales or causing us to incur significant costs to defend our rights.
q. If we are unable to maintain our current operating relationship with host stores including of our retail licensed brands and other host relationships, we could suffer a loss in sales and possible impairment of certain intangible assets.
Our sales depend in part on our relationships with the host stores that allow us to operate our retail licensed brands, including Sears Optical and Target Optica land other host relationships, including Macy’s. Our leases and licenses with Sears Optical are terminable upon short notice. If our relationship with Sears Optical, Target Optical or Macy’s were to end, we would suffer a loss of sales and the possible impairment of certain intangible assets. This could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects.
r. If we fail to maintain an efficient distribution and production network or if there is a disruption to our critical manufacturing plants or distribution network in highly competitive markets, our business, results of operations and financial condition could suffer.
The mid and premium price categories of the prescription frame and sunglasses markets in which we operate are highly competitive. We believe that, in addition to successfully introducing new products, responding to changes in the market environment and maintaining superior production capabilities, our ability to remain competitive is highly dependent on our success in maintaining an efficient distribution network. If we are unable to maintain an efficient and resilient distribution and production network or a significant disruption thereto should occur, our sales may decline due to the inability to timely deliver products to customers and our profitability may decline due to an increase in our per unit distribution costs in the affected regions, which may have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
s. If we were to become subject to adverse judgments or determinations in legal proceedings to which we are, or may become, a party, our future profitability could suffer through a reduction of sales, increased costs or damage to our reputation due to our failure to adequately communicate the impact of any such proceeding or its outcome to the investor and business communities.
We are currently a party to certain legal proceedings. In addition, in the ordinary course of our business, we become involved in various other claims, lawsuits, investigations and governmental and administrative proceedings, some of which are or may be significant. Adverse judgments or determinations in one or more of these proceedings could require us to change the way we do business or use substantial resources in adhering to the settlements and could have a material adverse effect on our business, including, among other consequences, by significantly increasing the costs required to operate our business. Ineffective communications, during or after these proceedings, could amplify the negative effects, if any, of these proceedings on our reputation and may result in a negative market impact on the price of our securities.
t. Changes in our tax rates or exposure to additional tax liabilities could affect our future results
We are subject to taxes in Italy, the United States and numerous other jurisdictions. Our future effective tax rates could be affected by changes in the mix of earnings in countries with differing statutory tax rates, changes in the valuation of deferred tax assets and liabilities, or changes in tax laws or their interpretation. Any of these changes could have a material adverse effect on our profitability. We also are regularly subject to the examination of our income tax returns by the Italian tax authority, the U.S. Internal Revenue Service as well as the governing tax authorities in other countries where we operate.
We routinely assess the likelihood of adverse outcomes resulting from these examinations to determine the adequacy of our provision for tax risks. Currently, some of our companies are under examination by various tax authorities. There can be no assurance that the outcomes of the current ongoing examinations and possible future examinations will not materially adversely affect our business, results of operations, financial condition and prospects.
u. If there is any material failure, inadequacy, interruption, security failure or breach of our information technology systems, whether owned by us or outsourced or managed by third parties, this may result in remediation costs, reduced sales due to an inability to properly process information and increased costs of operating our business.
We rely on information technology systems both managed internally and outsourced to third parties across our operations, including for management of our supply chain, point of sale processing in our stores and various other processes and transactions. Our ability to effectively manage our business and coordinate the production, distribution and sale of our products depends on, among other things, the reliability and capacity of these systems. The failure of these systems to operate effectively, network disruptions, problems with transitioning to upgraded or replacement systems, or a breach in data security of these systems could cause delays in product supply and sales, reduced efficiency of our operations, unintentional disclosure of customer or other confidential information of the Company leading to additional costs and possible fines or penalties, legal defense and settlement costs, or damage to our reputation, and potentially significant capital investments and other costs could be required to remediate the problem, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
v. If we record a write down for inventories that are obsolete or exceed anticipated demand or other assets the net realizable value of which is below the carrying amount, such charges could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
We record a write down for product and component inventories that have become obsolete or exceed anticipated demand or net realizable value. We review our long lived assets for impairment whenever events or changed circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset may not be recoverable, and we determine whether valuation allowances are needed against other assets, including, but not limited to, accounts receivable. If we determine that impairments or other events have occurred that lead us to believe we will not fully realize these assets, we record a write down or a valuation allowance equal to the amount by which the carrying value of the assets exceeds their fair market value.
Although we believe our inventory and other asset related provisions are currently adequate, no assurance can be made that, given the rapid and unpredictable pace of product obsolescence, we will not incur additional inventory or asset related charges, which charges could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
w. Leonardo Del Vecchio, our chairman and principal stockholder, controls 62.55% of our voting power and is in a position to affect our ongoing operations, corporate transactions and any matters submitted to a vote of our stockholders, including the election of directors and a change in corporate control.
As of December 31, 2016, Mr. Leonardo Del Vecchio, the Chairman of our Board of Directors, through the company Delfin S.. r.l., has voting rights over 302,846,957 Ordinary Shares, or 62.55% of the issued share capital. As a result, Mr. Del Vecchio has the ability to exert significant influence over our corporate affairs and to control the outcome of virtually all matters submitted to a vote of our stockholders, including the election of our directors, the amendment of our Articles of Association or By laws, and the approval of mergers, consolidations and other significant corporate transactions.
Mr. Del Vecchio’s interests may conflict with or differ from the interests of our other stockholders. In situations involving a conflict of interest between Mr. Del Vecchio and our other stockholders, Mr. Del Vecchio may exercise his control in a manner that would benefit him to the potential detriment of other stockholders. Mr. Del Vecchio’s significant ownership interest could delay, prevent or cause a change in control of our company, any of which may be adverse to the interests of our other stockholders.
x. If we are not successful in transitioning our leadership structure as currently intended, our future growth and profitability may suffer.
In October 2014, we announced the introduction of a management structure based on a co CEO model, pursuant to which two co chief executive officers are appointed to manage the principal executive officer responsibilities of the Group, with one chief executive officer focused on Markets and the other focused on Product and Operations. The co CEO leadership structure allocates distinct yet complementary responsibilities between the two co chief executive officers and is designed to promote stronger management of the Group, which has rapidly increased in size, complexity and global presence in recent years. In January 29, 2016, our Board of Directors approved a modification to our governance structure by assigning executive responsibility for Markets, a role formerly held by Mr. Adil Mehboob-Khan, to Mr.
Leonardo Del Vecchio, the Company’s Chairman of the Board and majority shareholder, as Executive Chairman. Mr. Massimo Vian continues in his role of CEO for Product and Operations and assists the Executive Chairman. If the new model proves ineffective, there may be delays in the implementation of the Group’s strategic plans and reductions or slowdowns of our future growth and profitability.
y. If our procedures designed to comply with Section 404 of the Sarbanes Oxley Act of 2002 cause us to identify material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting, the trading price of our securities may be adversely impacted.
Our annual report on Form 20 F includes a report from our management relating to its evaluation of our internal control over financial reporting, as required under Section 404 of the U.S. Sarbanes Oxley Act of 2002, as amended. There are inherent limitations on the effectiveness of internal controls, including collusion, management override and failure of human judgment. In addition, control procedures are designed to reduce, rather than eliminate, business risks. Notwithstanding the systems and procedures we have implemented to comply with these requirements, we may uncover circumstances that we determine to be material weaknesses, or that otherwise result in disclosable conditions. Any identified material weaknesses in our internal control structure may involve significant effort and expense to remediate, and any disclosure of such material weaknesses or other conditions requiring disclosure may result in a negative market reaction to our securities.
z. If the U.S. dollar or the Australian dollar weaken relative to the Euro or the Chinese Yuan strengthens relative to the Euro, our profitability as a consolidated group could suffer.
Our principal manufacturing facilities are located in Italy and China. We also maintain manufacturing facilities in Brazil, India and the United States as well as sales and distribution facilities throughout the world. As a result, our results of operations could be materially adversely affected by foreign exchange rate fluctuations in two principal areas:
- we incur most of our manufacturing costs in Euro and in Chinese Yuan, and receive a significant part of our revenues in other currencies such as the U.S. dollar, the Australian dollar and the Brazilian real. Therefore, a strengthening of the Chinese Yuan could negatively impact our consolidated results of operations; and
- a substantial portion of our assets, liabilities, revenues and costs are denominated in various currencies other than Euro, with a substantial portion of our revenues and operating expenses being denominated in U.S. dollars. As a result, our operating results, which are reported in Euro, are affected by currency exchange rate fluctuations, particularly between the U.S. dollar and the Euro.
As our international operations grow, future changes in the exchange rate of the Euro against the U.S. dollar and other currencies may negatively impact our reported results, although we have in place policies designed to manage such risk.
aa. If economic conditions around the world worsen, we may experience an increase in our exposure to credit risk on our accounts receivable which may result in a higher risk that we are unable to collect payments from our customers and, potentially, increased costs due to reserves for doubtful accounts and a reduction in sales to customers experiencing credit related issues.
A substantial majority of our outstanding trade receivables are not covered by collateral or credit insurance. While we have procedures to monitor and limit exposure to credit risk on our trade and non trade receivables, there can be no assurance such procedures will effectively limit our credit risk and avoid losses, which could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.